Endoscopy (inside) is a procedure used in medicine to look inside the body. The endoscopy procedure uses an endoscope to examine the inside of an organ or cavity in the body. Unlike many other medical imaging techniques, endoscopes are inserted directly into the organs. There are many types of endoscopes. Depending on where in the body and the type of procedure, an endoscopy may be performed either by a physician or a surgeon. A patient may be fully conscious or anesthetized during the procedure.